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Gagal Jantung


Perawatan Gagal Jantung Kongestif

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After congestive heart failure is diagnosed, treatment should be started immediately. Perhaps the most important and yet most neglected aspect of treatment involves lifestyle modifications. Sodium causes an increase in fluid accumulation in the body's tissues. Because the body is often congested with excess fluid, patients become very sensitive to the levels of intake of sodium and water. Restricting salt and fluid intake is often recommended because of the tendency of fluid to accumulate in the lungs and surrounding tissues. An American "no added salt" diet can still contain 4 to 6 grams (4000 to 6000 milligrams) of sodium per day. In patients with congestive heart failure, an intake of no more than 2 grams (2000 milligrams) of sodium per day is generally advised. Reading food labels and paying close attention to total sodium intake is very important.

Likewise, the total amount of fluid consumed must be regulated. Although many patients with congestive heart failure take diuretics to aid in the elimination of excess fluid, the action of these medications can be overwhelmed by an excess intake of water and other fluids. The maxim that "drinking eight glasses of water a day is healthy" certainly does not apply to patients with congestive heart failure. In fact, patients with more advanced cases of congestive heart failure are often advised to limit their total daily fluid intake from all sources to 2 quarts. The above guidelines for sodium and fluid intake may vary depending on the severity of congestive heart failure in any given patient and should be discussed with the patient's physician.

An important tool for monitoring an appropriate fluid balance is the frequent measurement of body weight. An early sign of fluid accumulation is an increase in body weight. This may occur even before shortness of breath or swelling in the legs and other body tissues (edema) is detected. A weight gain of two to three pounds over two to three days should prompt a call to the physician, who may order an increase in the dose of diuretics or other methods designed to stop the early stages of fluid accumulation before it becomes more severe.

Aerobic exercise, once discouraged for congestive heart failure patients, has been shown to be beneficial in maintaining overall functional capacity, quality of life, and perhaps even improving survival. Each patient's body has its own unique ability to compensate for the failing heart. Given the same degree of heart muscle weakness, patients may display widely varying degrees of limitation of function. Regular exercise, when tailored to the patient's tolerance level, appears to provide significant benefits and should be used only when the patient is compensated and stable.

Menujukan Faktor-Faktor Yang Berpotensi Dapat Dibalikan

Tergantung pada penyakit yang mendasarinya dari gagal jantung kongestif, faktor-faktor yang berpotensi dapat dibalikan harus diselidiki. Contohnya, pada pasien-pasien tertentu yang gagal jantung kongestifnya disebabkan oleh aliran darah yang tidak cukup ke otot jantung, restorasi (pemulihan) dari aliran darah melalui operasi arteri koroner atau prosedur-prosedur kateter (angioplasty, intracoronary stenting) mungkin dipertimbangkan. Gagal jantung kongestif yang disebabkan oleh penyakit yang parah dari klep-klep mungkin dikurangi pada pasien-pasien yang tepat dengan operasi klep. Jika gagal jantung kongestif disebabkan oleh hipertensi yang kronis dan tidak terkontrol, kontrol tekanan darah yang agresif akan seringkali memperbaiki kondisi. Demikian juga, kelemahan otot jantung yang disebabkan oleh penyalahgunaan alkohol yang parah dan berkepanjangan dapat menjadi baik secara signifikan dengan penghentian meminum. Gagal jantung kongestif yang disebabkan oleh keadaan-keadaan penyakit lain mungkin dengan cara yang sama sebagian atau seluruhnya dapat dibalikan dengan tindakan-tindakan yang tepat.

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