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Obat ACE Inhibitors

(Angiotensin Converting

(Enzyme Inhibitors)

Definisi ACE Inhibitors, Dan Cara Kerja Mereka

Angiotensin II adalah kimia yang sangat kuat yang menyebabkan otot2 yang mengelilingi pembuluh2 darah untuk berkontraksi, dengan demikian menyempitkan pembuluh2. Penyempitan pembuluh2 meningkatkan tekanan dalam pembuluh2 yang menyebabkan tekanan darah tinggi (hipertensi). Angiotensin II dibentuk dari angiotensin I dalam darah oleh enzim angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors adalah obat2 yang memperlambat (menghalangi) aktivitas dari enzim ACE, yang mengurangi produksi dari angiotensin II. Sebagai hasilnya, pembuluh2 darah melebar atau membesar, dan tekanan darah berkurang. Tekanan darah yang lebih rendah ini membuat jantung lebih mudah untuk memompa darah dan dapat memperbaiki fungsi dari jantung yang gagal. Sebagai tambahan, kemajuan dari penyakit ginjal yang disebabkan oleh tekanan darah yang tinggi atau diabetes diperlambat.

Untuk Kondisi2 Apa ACE Inhibitors Digunakan ?

ACE inhibitors are used for controlling blood pressure, treating heart failure, preventing strokes, and preventing kidney damage in people with hypertension or diabetes. They also improve survival after heart attacks. In studies, individuals with hypertension, heart failure, or prior heart attacks who were treated with an ACE inhibitor lived longer than patients who did not take an ACE inhibitor. Because they prevent early death resulting from hypertension, heart failure or heart attacks, ACE inhibitors are one of the most important group of drugs. Some individuals with hypertension do not respond sufficiently to ACE inhibitors alone. In these cases, other drugs are used in combination with ACE inhibitors.

Adakah Perbedaan2 Diantara Tipe2 Yang Berbeda Dari ACE Inhibitors ?

ACE inhibitors are very similar. However, they differ in how they are eliminated from the body and their doses. Some ACE inhibitors need to be converted into an active form in the body before they work. In addition, some ACE inhibitors may work more on ACE that is found in tissues than on ACE that is present in the blood. The importance of this difference or whether one ACE inhibitor is better than another has not been determined.

Efek2 Sampingan Dari ACE Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors are well-tolerated by most individuals. Nevertheless, they are not free of side effects, and some patients should not use ACE inhibitors.

ACE inhibitors usually are not prescribed for pregnant patients because they may cause birth defects.

Individuals with bilateral renal artery stenosis (narrowing) may experience worsening of kidney function, and people who have had a severe reaction to ACE inhibitors probably should avoid them.

The most common side effects are:

  • cough,
  • elevated blood potassium levels,
  • low blood pressure, dizziness,
  • headache,
  • drowsiness,
  • weakness,
  • abnormal taste (metallic or salty taste), and
  • rash.

It may take up to a month for coughing to subside, and if one ACE inhibitor causes cough it is likely that the others will too. The most serious, but rare, side effects of ACE inhibitors are kidney failure, allergic reactions, a decrease in white blood cells, and swelling of tissues (angioedema).

Dengan Obat2 Apa ACE Inhibitors Berinteraksi ?

ACE inhibitors have few interactions with other drugs. Since ACE inhibitors may increase blood levels of potassium, the use of potassium supplements, salt substitutes (which often contain potassium), or other drugs that increase the body's potassium may result in excessive blood potassium levels. ACE inhibitors also may increase the blood concentration of lithium (Eskalith) and lead to an increase in side effects from lithium. There have been reports that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever etc.), indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve) may reduce the effects of ACE inhibitors.

Contoh2 Dari ACE Inhibitors

Berikut adalah daftar dari ACE inhibitors yang tersedia di Amerika :

  • benazepril (Lotensin),
  • captopril (Capoten),
  • enalapril (Vasotec),
  • fosinopril (Monopril),
  • lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
  • moexipril (Univasc), and
  • perindopril (Aceon),
  • quinapril (Accupril),
  • ramipril (Altace),
  • trandolapril (Mavik).

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